Kāore i kotahi te whakahaere o ngā tikanga ā iwi.  He iwi anō me ōna tohunga me ōna tikanga me āna whakahaere.  Hiki atu he iwi, pērā tonu.  Nō reira, kia mau koe ki ōu ake ....  Mā ō rātou uri e mau ō rātou nā kōrero.  Engari kia mau koe ki ngā kōrero a ōu mātua, a ōu tūpuna.  Ina ka tika, ka waiho mai ētahi mātauranga hei taonga mōu.

The organisation of social customs and practices is diverse, not unitary. Each people has its own experts, customs and organisational structures. It is a pattern that is consistent irrespective of the people. Therefore, hold fast to your own ... Let the descendants of others retain their own histories and stories. You must retain the collective wisdom of your parents and ancestors. If this is done appropriately greater knowledge will result.

(by Te Whatahoro, 1865)

The Purpose of Learning Tikanga-ā-Iwi

The spirit of Tikanga-ā-Iwi is encapsulated in the above quote by Te Whatahoro: through a critical examination of human social behaviour, students gain an understanding of their world. Tikanga-ā-Iwi also examines the ways people meet their physical, social, emotional and spiritual needs.

Social Studies is studied from level 1 in primary through to level 5 in secondary. Beyond level 5, students will specialise to study Social Studies, History, Geography and/or Economics, as optional subjects at levels 6 to 8 in the senior secondary years. 

The Benefits of Learning Tikanga-ā-Iwi
In Tikanga-ā-Iwi students develop knowledge of the diverse and dynamic nature of society and gain an understanding of the complexity of human behaviour. Through this, students will be informed, be constructively critical, and be able to participate responsibly in shaping society. The Treaty of Waitangi and its historical and contemporary relevance is a major underlying principle in this learning area.

Students develop an understanding of their own identity through a focus on the people, the events and the influences that have contributed towards shaping New Zealand society.  As well as this students will study peoples and communities beyond New Zealand, and their world views.

Through Tikanga-ā-Iwi students will have an opportunity to investigate current events to develop knowledge and understanding of significant events and people in their local community, in the national community and in the global community.

The Structure of this Learning Area

Tikanga-ā-Iwi is comprised of four strands.

In the strand Social Organisation and Culture, students develop their knowledge and understanding of:

the reasons and ways that people organise themselves to meet their needs;

the rights, roles and responsibilities of people as they interact within groups;

the links between culture and identity, and the outcomes of cultural interaction.

In the strand The Changing World, students develop their knowledge and understanding of:

the relationships between people and past events, and the beliefs and influences that have shaped, and continue to shape, society;

the interpretations of those relationships over time.

In the strand Place and Environment, students develop their knowledge and understanding of:

peoples' interactions with places and environments;

how people sustain the environment.

In the strand The Economic World, students develop their knowledge and understanding of:

the ways people use, allocate and manage resources;

the reasons and ways people engage in economic activities.

ask questions, process information, and communicate findings;

investigate differing perspectives and values, and positions and the reasons for these;

examine issues, identify solutions, evaluate outcomes, and make decisions about possible social action.